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4. Ecological Conservation and Construction

      In order to improve the environmental quality, it is not only needed to conduct pollution control around the city urban itself, but also needed to strengthen the ecological conservation and construction at city-wide and regional level. The long-term objective for a permanent improvement of the urban environment needs a healthy regional ecological system. Therefore, the environmental protection in Beijing includes ecological conservation and construction in the suburban plain and mountainous area and the vicinity of the Capital, as well as the prevention and treatment of the urban pollution.

      In order to implement the state program for eco-environmental conservation and execute the specific implementing measures of the Beijing Municipal Government, eco-environmental conservation plan of the city will be developed and define the ecological zones with various functions. Development of green area and integrated environmental sanitation control will be strengthened. Three green shelters will be formed for the city. Development of green food and organic food will be advocated to shift the traditional agriculture into ecological sound one. Restructure of water consumption will undergo adjustment to ensure the water supply for ecological purpose, and help to build a healthy ecosystem for Beijing realize the harmonious co-existence between the man and the nature.

      (1) Identification of Ecological Zones

      The water source protection zones and conservation area of Miyun Reservoir, Huairou Reservoir, Guanting Reservoir, and their surrounding areas and Waterworks No.8, the sand-retaining areas along Yongding river, Chaobai river, Dasha river basins, Nankou of Changping and Kangzhuang of Yanqing, and the soil erosion control areas in upstream of Chao river, Bai river, Yongding river and Ru river, will be identified as the key ecological conservation zones. Rescue measures will be taken for ecological conservation in these areas, to prevent further ecological degradation through a strictly controlled utilization and scientific restoration. Mandatory measures will be adopted to protect the resources conservation zones of water, land, forest, mineral, aquatic products, bio-species and tourism. Areas with groundwater over exploited and fragile ecosystem will be defined to ban the mineral exploitation, land use and logging.

      Establishing Ecological Demonstration District and Ecological Agriculture County will be promoted in the rural area. Highly efficiency and ecologically sound agriculture will be developed to realize sustainable development and build a healthy ecological system. Constructing natural reserves shall receive high attention, additional 15-20 natural reserves located at Xiaolongmen, Miyun Reservoir and other areas will be added by 2005. After further successive expansion, about natural reserves will cover around 10% of Beijing’s territory by 2008. Environmental protection in the places embodying cultural, historical and natural relics will be promoted. Integrated planning and management of tourism will give priority to the development of ecological tourism and improvement of forest parks and scenic resorts. Rules, supporting standard and evaluation system for eco-environmental conservation will be developed to form a strict ecological monitoring system.

      (2) Rational Development and Utilization of Water Resources

      The basic principle for the rational utilization of water resources is to try every possible means to keep the source of surface and ground water clean, make ultimate use of storm-water and reclaimed water to ensure provision of the water for ecological use. Water-efficient agriculture and industry shall be developed to build a water-efficient city.

      Water saving efforts will continue, the price of water supply shall be increased by a reasonable margin. By 2005, all the farmland and fruit gardens will be irrigated by water-saving equipment and the water for farm use should have a sharp decrease. By 2007, the water for industrial use should decline to 440 million cubic meters from the present 600 million. Moreover, water saving in daily life will be encouraged, the popularity rate of water efficient appliance should reach 80%. Gray water reuse among the public institutions and residential communities will be promoted. Wastewater reclamation facilities will be developed along with the set-up of sewerage treatment plants. By 2005, the wastewater reclamation after necessary treatment in urban area will reach 300 million cubic meters (reuse for agricultural and industrial purposes, municipal use, green land irrigation and supplementary of waterways). The reuse rate of effluent from the sewerage treatment plants will go up to about 50% by 2008.

      Program for rational exploitation of groundwater will be developed to gradually raise the groundwater level. Emphasis would be laid on control over exploitation of groundwater for industrial and agricultural use. Investigations and studies on the exploitation and utilization of groundwater in plain area will be launched. Importance will be attached to the protection of the existing ecological system in wetlands and development of artificial wetland as appropriate. At the same time, storm-water will be developed as alternative water resource to supplement and nourish the source of ground water. Main approach will be interception and recharge during the flood season through the forestation in front of the mountains, the plantation with tree patches, the treatment of sand/stone farms and the development of wetland system. Recharging groundwater with treated wastewater and combination of recharging and storage will be studied. Standards for various use of reclaimed wastewater will be formulated to promote wastewater reuse.

      (3) Green Shelters

      By 2005, three green shelters will be formed for the city. 100,000 hectare’s forest will be increased in the mountainous area to realize 70% forest coverage in the mountainous area. In the plain area, 23,000 hectare’s green belt along five waterways and ten highways and forest network in the farmland will be built; satellite towns and the center towns will be brought to meet the standards of Garden Town. 12,500 hectare’s green shelter will be formed for the urban area and the second green shelter shall be built. By 2007, about 470,000 hectares’ soil erosion land will be controlled, accounting for 70% of the total erosion area.

      (4) Transforming of Desert Areas

      Control of the five sands hazard sources along the three rivers and two sandy area (namely, the Yongding River, the Chaobai River, the Dasha River and at Kangzhuang in Yanqing County and Nankou in Changping), will be facilitated. By 2005, over 10,000 hectares’ forest to defend wind and retain sand will be planted. By 2007, all the potential desertifying farmlands will be under control. Beijing will work closely with relevant provinces in the ecological improvement program for Beijing, Tianjin, and the surrounding area organized by the central goverment.

      (5) Agricultural Restructuring

      Along with agricultural restructuring and development of ecological agriculture, Beijing will lay emphasis on agriculture’s role in the protection of water, air and soil. Grain production especially paddy field shall be reduced; agricultural area pollution source pollution caused by husbandry of livestock and poultry shall be controlled. Moreover, use of chemical fertilizer and pesticide shall be substantially reduced. Agricultural land use plan shall be updated to readjust crop production structure, actively develop green agriculture, return the related farmland to forest and grassland and stop new reclamation for agricultural use. Air-borne dust from farmland shall be reduced by planting winter crop, improving the farmland forestry network and leaving the stubble in the farm without traditional plough. Also, protective cultivation technology shall be promoted and high quality and high efficiency ecological agriculture will be developed to eliminate seasonal bare farmland by 2005. Moreover, by 2004, all the husbandry industry in the area of protection zones of drinking water sources and within the Fifth Ring Road will be closed down or moved out. By 2007, all the wastewater from the allowed large scale husbandry industry will should comply with discharge limits after necessary treatment and night soil utilization rate shall reach 90%.

      Great effort will be made to develop the production based of safe food, green food and organic food, implement standardized management and ensure 100% of the food product reaching the safety standard.

      (6) Bio-diversity Conservation

      On the basis of the features of the mountainous, plain, and urban area, separate ecological systems will be identified with specific plans set for ecological conservation and construction. Emphasis will be laid on the ecosystem conservation in the plain area linking the mountain area and urban area to form the natural and semi-natural ecological corridor linking the downtown area with the outer area.

      Protection of the wildlife and the ancient famous trees and restoration of the rare plants and animals will receive high attention. By 2005, the research center for biological disease control in the forest area, the monitoring system for wild plant and wetland, and the monitoring center for wildlife shall be established. By 2008, the first aid center for the wildlife and the protection center for aquatic wildlife shall be set up. Research will also be made on the technology of reintroducing animals and the approaches to restore the rare wildlife in natural habitat. The reserves for the wetland along Weishui River, Wenyu river, and at Hanshiqiao will be restored. In building of various green lands, emphasis will be laid on the configuration of bio-diversity, to establish big artificial green land for different species, for better protection of the wild bird in the urban area.

      Research on relevant genetic technologies will be launched.

      (7) Urban Forestation and Landscape Improvement

      By 2005, 40% of the city’s urban area will be covered with green land, and by 2007, this figure will go over 43%. State Standard for Garden City will be strictly observed. Each of the central district in the city urban shall build 2 stretches of large green land of 3-5 hectares and each suburban district is required to build 3 large pieces of green land with more than 10 hectares. That will create a total of 50 large green lands with more than 1 hectares’ area. Every means possible will be tried to expand the public green land to basically provide a street park in every 500 meters block. More green should be added aside the Second Ring Road and the 2 axle-roads of city layout both from north to south and east to west. Along other waterways and motorways, high-class green belt shall be built, especially along the 255 main streets and roads. Three-dimension plantation will be advocated to add green to the walls and flyovers. Roof plantation will be practiced. The residents will be encouraged to add green to their balcony. Efforts to dismantle walls to give a view of green and dismantle the illegal building occupying reserved green land will continue. Water surface in the urban area will be well maintained and expanded as appropriate. Landscape of water surface will be improved.

      (8) Comprehensive City Renovation

      Beijing will say no to any new illegal building. By 2004, all existing illegal buildings in the urban area will be dismantled, and the campaign shall be completed citywide by 2007. Efforts to rectify the order and environmental in suburb linking the urban and rural area will be intensified, and management of the floating population in such places will be strengthened. By 2007, the environment status and management in such part will come up to the level of the urban area. Domestic refuse collection facilities shall be rehabilitated to realize airtight and prompt transportation and the clearance of the waste. More attention would be paid to the outlook of the urban buildings and the relevant facilities so that the style of an ancient capital can be kept in an orderly and beautiful manner.

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